Negotiation styles in Hong Kong and China

Negotiation styles
R.G. Shell identified five styles/responses to negotiation.[5] Individuals can often have strong dispositions towards numerous styles; the style used during a negotiation depends on the context and the interests of the other party, among other factors. In addition, styles can change over time.

Accommodating:
Individuals who enjoy solving the other party’s problems and preserving personal relationships. Accommodators are sensitive to the emotional states, body language, and verbal signals of the other parties. They can, however, feel taken advantage of in situations when the other party places little emphasis on the relationship.

Avoiding:
Individuals who do not like to negotiate and don’t do it unless warranted. When negotiating, avoiders tend to defer and dodge the confrontational aspects of negotiating; however, they may be perceived as tactful and diplomatic.

Collaborating:
Individuals who enjoy negotiations that involve solving tough problems in creative ways. Collaborators are good at using negotiations to understand the concerns and interests of the other parties. They can, however, create problems by transforming simple situations into more complex ones.

Competing:
Individuals who enjoy negotiations because they present an opportunity to win something. Competitive negotiators have strong instincts for all aspects of negotiating and are often strategic. Because their style can dominate the bargaining process, competitive negotiators often neglect the importance of relationships.

Compromising:
Individuals who are eager to close the deal by doing what is fair and equal for all parties involved in the negotiation. Compromisers can be useful when there is limited time to complete the deal; however, compromisers often unnecessarily rush the negotiation process and make concessions too quickly.

Types of Negotiators
Three basic kinds of negotiators have been identified by researchers involved in The Harvard Negotiation Project. These types of negotiators are:
Soft bargainers, hard bargainers, and principled bargainers.

Soft.
These people see negotiation as too close to competition, so they choose a gentle style of bargaining. The offers they make are not in their best interests, they yield to others’ demands, avoid confrontation, and they maintain good relations with fellow negotiators. Their perception of others is one of friendship, and their goal is agreement. They do not separate the people from the problem, but are soft on both. They avoid contests of wills and will insist on agreement, offering solutions and easily trusting others and changing their opinions.

Hard.
These people use contentious strategies to influence, utilising phrases such as “this is my final offer” and “take it or leave it.” They make threats, are distrustful of others, insist on their position, and apply pressure to negotiate. They see others as adversaries and their ultimate goal is victory. Additionally, they will search for one single answer, and insist you agree on it. They do not separate the people from the problem (as with soft bargainers), but they are hard on both the people involved and the problem.

Principled.
Individuals who bargain this way seek integrative solutions, and do so by sidestepping commitment to specific positions. They focus on the problem rather than the intentions, motives, and needs of the people involved. They separate the people from the problem, explore interests, avoid bottom lines, and reach results based on standards (which are independent of personal will). They base their choices on objective criteria rather than power, pressure, self interest, or an arbitrary decisional procedure. These criteria may be drawn from moral standards, principles of fairness, professional standards, tradition, and so on.

Researchers from The Harvard Negotiation Project recommend that negotiators explore a number of alternatives to the problems they are facing in order to come to the best overall conclusion/solution, but this is often not the case (as when you may be dealing with an individual utilizing soft or hard bargaining tactics) (Forsyth, 2010).

Source: Wikip[edia

Negotiation tactics

Negotiation tactics

There are many different ways to categorise the essential elements of negotiation.

One view of negotiation involves three basic elements: process, behaviour and substance. The process refers to how the parties negotiate: the context of the negotiations, the parties to the negotiations, the tactics used by the parties, and the sequence and stages in which all of these play out. Behaviour refers to the relationships among these parties, the communication between them and the styles they adopt. The substance refers to what the parties negotiate over: the agenda, the issues (positions and - more helpfully - interests), the options, and the agreement(s) reached at the end.

Another view of negotiation comprises four elements: strategy, process, tools, and tactics. Strategy comprises the top level goals - typically including relationship and the final outcome. Processes and tools include the steps that will be followed and the roles taken in both preparing for and negotiating with the other parties. Tactics include more detailed statements and actions and responses to others' statements and actions. Some add to this persuasion and influence, asserting that these have become integral to modern day negotiation success, and so should not be omitted.

Adversary or partner?
The two basically different approaches to negotiating will require different tactics. In the distributive approach each negotiator is battling for the largest possible piece of the pie, so it may be quite appropriate - within certain limits - to regard the other side more as an adversary than a partner and to take a somewhat harder line. This would however be less appropriate if the idea were to hammer out an arrangement that is in the best interest of both sides. A good agreement is not one with maximum gain, but optimum gain. This does not by any means suggest that we should give up our own advantage for nothing. But a cooperative attitude will regularly pay dividends. What is gained is not at the expense of the other, but with him.[2]

Employing an advocate
A skilled negotiator may serve as an advocate for one party to the negotiation. The advocate attempts to obtain the most favourable outcomes possible for that party. In this process the negotiator attempts to determine the minimum outcome(s) the other party is (or parties are) willing to accept, then adjusts their demands accordingly. A "successful" negotiation in the advocacy approach is when the negotiator is able to obtain all or most of the outcomes their party desires, but without driving the other party to permanently break off negotiations, unless the best alternative to a negotiated agreement (BATNA) is acceptable.

Skilled negotiators may use a variety of tactics ranging from negotiation hypnosis,[citation needed] to a straightforward presentation of demands or setting of preconditions, to more deceptive approaches such as cherry picking. Intimidation and salami tactics may also play a part in swaying the outcome of negotiations.[citation needed]
Another negotiation tactic is bad guy/good guy. Bad guy/good guy is when one negotiator acts as a bad guy by using anger and threats. The other negotiator acts as a good guy by being considerate and understanding. The good guy blames the bad guy for all the difficulties while trying to get concessions and agreement from the opponent.
Another negotiation is leaning back and whispering. This establishes a dominant physical position thus intimidating your counterpart.

The Getting to YES approach
Getting to YES: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In is a best-selling 1981 non-fiction book by Roger Fisher and William L. Ury. Reissued in 1991 with additional authorship credit to Bruce Patton, the book made appearances for years on Business Weeks "Best Seller" list. The book suggests a method called "principled negotiation or negotiation of merits." This method consists of four main steps: separating the people from the problem; focusing on interests, not positions; generating a variety of possibilities before deciding what to do; and insisting that the result be based on some objective standard.

Source: Wikipedia

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Business English And Its Importance To Business And Professional Success


By Maria Eliza Raymundo

What is Business English?
Loosely defined, Business English refers to the English language used in international trade or business. It is a specialized area of the English language learning and teaching because it is largely attributed to non-native English speakers who study the subject to enhance their chances of doing business with companies from English speaking countries.
Largely depending on the intention for which learning is intended, Business English can refer to the study of business English vocabulary used in the fields of trade, business, finance, or international relations. If the study focuses on techniques on business presentations, negotiations, correspondence, writing and other kills needed for business communications, then it can be classified as the study of Business English communication skills in the workplace. There is really not much difference between the two classifications, as vocabulary and communication skills work together to achieve a common goal - to develop or enhance both written and verbal English skills for business or career advancement purposes.
Why Learning Business English Is Important
Around the world, there is an estimated 1 Billion people learning English. Many factors point to the reason why learning English has seen exponential growth in recent years, but it all boils down to the English language being the "global language" of business, politics, international relations, culture, and entertainment for so many countries worldwide. And that is just an understatement as in fact, while English is not an official language in many countries worldwide, it is the language most often taught as a foreign or second language.
Business Leverage
The rapid growth in technology for global communications notwithstanding, there are still many companies and individual professionals who fail in their quest for business or professional success. And oftentimes the failure primarily lies on one of the most basic foundations of making business relations - the language spoken. Undoubtedly, the English language is the global language for business and having a good command of English will definitely give one who is eyeing globally competitive business or career a clear edge. Any communications problem, whether personal or business, translates to losses, zero result in negotiations, incompetence for global business, or will just simply leave you ill-equipped to carry out international business.
Career Growth
Going down on a more personal level of career success, having the right Business English communication skills will surely equip you with a liberating confidence and ability to express yourself in the English language. It will surely be an advantage in interviews, thus giving you more opportunities to widen your career prospects. Or if you are not looking for a new job, having the confidence and ability to speak Business English is one way of enhancing your potential for earning by making you stand out for career advancement or promotions. Studies show a steady growth in the number of companies worldwide requiring employees who have bilingual skills.
Internet Proficiency Means English Proficiency
Research shows that 80% of the amount of Internet web content is in the English language and that content relating to business written in the English language largely comprises this figure. It goes without saying that having a good grasp of business information, data, or terminologies in the English language is very important to have a good understanding of the wealth of business information available on the Internet.
Maria Eliza Raymundo is a Virtual Assistant who contributes for PowerUp English [http://www.powerupenglish.com] and for the Business English Is Not Enough [http://www.powerupenglish.com/blog] blog.
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Maria_Eliza_Raymundo

Ten Tips to Legal English Writing For Paralegals

Ten Tips to Torture-Free Legal Writing For Paralegals
By Lisa Newman

Traditionally, the task of legal writing has been assumed by the attorney. Increasingly now, however, paralegals are being asked by their supervising attorneys to prepare a variety of legal documents. Some documents are created for internal purposes, relied upon by the attorney in preparation for litigation or an appeal. Other documents are reviewed by the attorney, revised, and ultimately filed with the court. In law offices of all sizes, it is not uncommon for experienced paralegals to write case briefs, research memoranda, motions, memoranda of points and authorities, and even appellate briefs.

Legal writing can be intimidating for the most seasoned legal professional. Approaching your next legal writing assignment does not need to be a daunting experience if you can remember this pneumonic device:

Every Outstanding Paralegal Knows How to Write Well and Effectively.

The first letter of each word corresponds with a tip to help propel your legal writing skills. If you follow these ten tips, you will be well on your way to torture-free legal writing!

Tip #1 - Establish a G.O.A.L. for your writing project.
Before you put pen to paper or fingertips to keyboard, you must first gather some essential information. This information is the GOAL of your project.

* G stands for the ground rules for your project. Whether you play golf, Monopoly, or checkers, a thorough understanding of the rules of the game is paramount. The same principle holds true in legal writing. Familiarize yourself with the document format that should be followed, the type font and font size that are required, and the margins that are acceptable. If you are writing a document that will be used internally, be certain to follow the format preferred by your attorney. Use samples of previously submitted work as a guide in completing your assignment. If you are preparing an appellate court brief, you should know the procedure for incorporating references to the record and the transcript. If you have any questions about the technical requirements for your document, ask your attorney or consult the local rules of the court where the document will be filed. Or, call the clerk of court. Because failure to follow the court rules may be grounds for the clerk to reject your filing, it is always prudent to ask questions and get it right the first time.

* O stands for the objective of your project. Now that you know the ground rules, you need to know how to "win" the game. What is the purpose of your assignment? Are you writing to inform or to persuade? Are you writing a research memorandum to inform your attorney about the client's viable defenses under state law? Or, are you writing to persuade the court to deny the opposing party's motion for summary judgment? Understanding the objective of your project enables you to better approach the way you conduct your research. Keeping the objective in mind also helps you focus and structure your writing, safeguarding against the likelihood that key information will be overlooked or omitted.

* A stands for your audience. Whether you are writing to your attorney, another paralegal, opposing counsel, the client, or to the court, it is important to tailor your writing style, tone, and formality in a manner appropriate for your intended audience. For example, the use of contractions is generally considered too informal when writing to the court, but may be acceptable when writing a research memorandum to your attorney.

* L stands for the limitations for your project. When your attorney gives you an assignment, you should confirm the due date. If you are preparing a document that will ultimately be filed with the court, you should also know the filing deadline. Depending upon the type of document you are preparing, it will be important to know the applicable statute of limitations for the cause(s) of action being asserted. Additionally, you should consult the court rules for any restrictions on the number of pages your document may include and the number of exhibits that may be appended.

Tip #2 - Organize your research materials.
Hours of research are meaningless if that seminal case you need is buried somewhere under the piles of paper and stacks of folders on your desk. For easy organization and worry-free retrieval, hole-punch your research materials and file them by category in a three-ring binder. Use color-coded tabs and specially marked dividers to separate your materials into primary and secondary authority, mandatory and persuasive authority, and federal and state authority.

In the upper right-hand corner of the first page of each case you pull, note the client-matter number, the date you retrieved the case, and the legal principle(s) for which the case is important. When you file the case and need to pull it later, you won't have to re-read it to recollect why you printed it out in the first place. Create an index or table of contents of your research materials and update it as necessary. Save the document on your PC and place a hard copy in the binder.

Tip #3- Prepare an outline.
After you've completed your research, but before you begin writing, prepare an outline of the information you will include in your document. Use the required format for your document as a tool in creating your outline. For instance, if you are writing an appellate brief, your outline should mirror each section of the brief, including the statement of the issues, statement of the facts, and argument components. In your outline, for each issue you intend to discuss, include an IRAC (Issue-Rule-Analysis-Conclusion) breakdown.

If you are writing a legal memorandum or appellate brief, list the major points you will address in your argument section and the subheadings that will go under these points. Remember that stronger arguments should appear before weaker ones. After you have prepared a preliminary outline, break it down further into paragraph levels. Briefly identify the topic of each paragraph and list the information that will be included in the paragraph along with the applicable references to authority you will cite. This process may sound laborious, but investing significant time to prepare your outline will actually save you time in the long run.

Tip #4 - Keep your writing simple and short.
With apologies to your college English instructor, legal writing ain't about using flowery phrases or melodic prose to convey your ideas. On the contrary, legal writing is about reducing the complex to the simple. The abstract to the concrete. And the superfluous to the necessary. The line in Rudyard Kipling's poem "If", where he writes of walking with kings but not losing the common touch, sums up what should be your approach to legal writing. Even though you may be addressing attorneys and judges with multiple advanced degrees and countless years of legal experience, you should write your document in such a way that the average person can understand your message. Assume the person who will read your document has never attended law school or graduated from a paralegal program. Keep your writing simple, but don't sacrifice precision. State the facts, raise the issues, support your argument with the authority, and end with an appropriate "call to action." In other words...get to the point!

Good legal writing is also short, or concise. Avoid using multisyllabic words when a shorter word choice will prove just as effective. Substitute a single word for a lengthier phrase. "Filed an action against" becomes "sue" and "with regard to" becomes "concerning." Write in short sentences (25 words or less) to heighten your reader's understanding. Likewise, shorter paragraphs help your reader better digest your message. You don't eat a steak all at once. Rather, you take your time, savoring it piece by piece in several bites. Similarly, you don't want to overwhelm the reader with a paragraph that extends three-quarters of the page. Divide longer paragraphs into more palatable two or three short paragraphs.

Tip #5 - Hold the reader's interest.
Good writing captures the reader's interest at the beginning, builds upon that interest throughout the middle, and satiates that interest at the end. Effective legal writing is no different. As you construct your document, remove all barriers and roadblocks to holding your reader's attention. I suggest you include a built-in navigation device. At the beginning of your document, give your reader a roadmap of where you are going and explain how you intend to get there. Throughout your document, insert mile markers to orient your reader as to how the section he or she is reading fits within the bigger picture.

Prevent reading-induced hypnosis by varying the length of your sentences and paragraphs. Use headings and subheadings as appropriate to break up huge blocks of text on the page. Incorporate sufficient white space to give your readers a visual (and mental) resting place. Emphasize key points or phrases with special formatting such as italics and bold, but be careful not to overdo a good thing. Use bulleted lists as appropriate. Strategically placed graphs, charts, and tables add substantive value to your writing and also help further engage your reader.

Tip #6 - Tie it together with topic sentences and transition bridges.
The previous tip discussed the importance of providing your reader with direction at the outset of your document and guideposts along the way. An effective way to accomplish this is to start each paragraph with a topic sentence to introduce the subject you intend to discuss. End each paragraph with a transition bridge to the next paragraph. Words such as "however," "moreover," and "in addition" can help create a seamless transition between independent, but related, thoughts. Using transition language as you move from one point to the next contributes to the overall cohesiveness of your writing.

Tip #7 - Write in active voice.
It is always a good rule of thumb to use active voice in any kind of writing. To do this, arrange your sentence so that the subject performs the action expressed by the verb. In the majority of instances, a sentence written using active voice is more clear and direct than one written using passive voice. Notwithstanding this general principle, there may be times when the facts in your case dictate the use of passive voice. For example, in a criminal case where your attorney represents the accused, you certainly would not want to write, "The defendant assaulted the victim." Instead, you would write, "The victim was assaulted."

Tip #8 - Write in positive voice.
Use a glass half-full approach in your legal writing by using positive voice. Change negative statements into affirmative statements. Compare "The defendant should not be prohibited from asserting a contributory negligence." with "The defendant must be permitted to assert a contributory negligence defense." Notice how the second sentence reads better and is more direct.

Tip #9 - Avoid legalese and legal jargon whenever possible.
As creatures of habit, we often find it challenging to embrace new ways of doing things. We have a tendency to fall back on the familiar. Thankfully, the foothold this kind of resistance has gained in the area of legal writing is going the way of the pet rock. Law school professors and legal practitioners alike are eschewing the use of archaic legal jargon and legalese. So should you. Legalese and jargon only function to obscure the meaning of your message. Include them only if absolutely necessary. (If you come across an "absolutely necessary" instance, let me know.)

Tip #10 - Edit your writing for the 7 Cs.
After you complete your first draft, carefully review your work and edit for the following:

* Clarity - Aim for specificity. Add information if needed to clarify your point. Remove information that makes your point muddy. Rephrase or re-work passages to ensure your point is conveyed clearly and meaningfully.

* Completeness - Use the outline you prepared from Tip #3 as a checklist to determine if your document is complete. Review your document to see if you included the required elements and necessary information.

* Conciseness - Eliminate unnecessary words and fillers. Remove redundancies. Remember to keep your sentences and paragraphs simple, short, and to the point.

* Concreteness - Eliminate lengthy legal phrases and substitute shorter concrete words and phrases. "Apprehended the suspect" becomes "arrested Mrs. Johnson."

* Consistency - Read through your writing to ensure your use of tenses and pronouns is consistent from beginning to end. Check to see that you used the same word or phrase each time you referred to the same concept. For example, if you use the word "terminated" to characterize what happened to your client in the first section of your writing, you'll want to change any references to your client being "dismissed" or "fired" that appear later in your document.

* Continuity - Review your work for organizational continuity. Sentences and paragraphs should flow logically from one to the next. Read the first and last sentences of each paragraph. If you are able to glean the major points by reading these sentences alone, your writing has excellent continuity.

* Correctness - Verify the legal authority you cited is still valid. Double-check your citation format. Review your work to see that you have accurately stated the facts. Finally, carefully proofread your work for spelling, grammar, typographical and other kinds of errors that will detract from your message.

After you have made these revisions, ask a friend or family member who does not have a legal background to read your work. Then, listen to the feedback. Make a second round of revisions as necessary. And then? Breathe easy because you are done. Congratulations.

Copyright © 2009 MARIGOLD CONSULTING. All rights reserved.

Lisa M. Newman is the Founder and CEO/President of Marigold Consulting in Atlanta, GA. The firm offers interactive personal growth classes, professional development workshops, and corporate training seminars on a variety of topics designed to help participants bloom out of proportion.

For additional information on these services or to schedule a session for your group, please visit http://www.marigoldconsulting.com.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Lisa_Newman

Business English Training Hong Kong

Business English Training Hong Kong

Part 1 of Our Business English Training Series
Doing business in Hong Kong, China, is getting more and more competitive. English is The International language of commerce and being able to communicate in English is essential in a large number of industries including aviation, medicine, hospitality and Information Technology. Companies in Hong Kong have to compete on the global stage and effective business communication skills are of paramount importance.


English is undoubtedly the worlds "international language. Around 375 million people are native speakers and another billion people speak some English or are currently learning the language. At the corporate level, human resources managers of HK companies are well away of the need for better business English skills for their staff. Multinational corporations as well as medium sized Hong Kong companies are actively developing their staff with workplace English training schemes to upgrade their employees. Business English Skills Training Programs run by reliable training institutes can help businesses move ahead and compete more effectively.


The ability to communicate well in English at a personal level is also vitally important for career development as well as job interviews and socializing. The most powerful business leaders, CEO’s, CFO's and COO’s are all expert communicators who are able to deliver clear and effective messages in English that get the results that they want. English is also the language of science and, of course, business travel.

Tips for Effective English Business Meetings


In Hong Kong, English is used extensively in the workplace. More and more meetings are being held in English and especially teleconferences with foreigh brach offices or headquarters. Business meetings conducted in English are either formal or informal. The informal variety may involve only a couple of people and take place in the managers, or your own, office. For this type there may not be a set time or agenda.
Formal meetings usually involve larger numbers of people and are often held in a conference room. There will be an agenda and minutes (detailed notes) are taken to record what happened in the meeting.
An agenda lists out the time and place of the meeting and also the points that will have to be covered. Quite often there is also a section of time allocated to “Any other business” (AOB) where ideas that are not listed on the agenda may be brought up for discussion.
Formal meetings may involve a business presentation (sales presentation or otherwise) being given, and details on how to conduct
effective presentations are covered elsewhere on this site. It is good to familiarize yourself with the venue and understand how all of the projection and audio eupiment works. However, should you be asked to present something ad-hoc a white board or flip chart is all that you need.
As in all communication, body language is very important. Don’t smile too much but again don’t look totally bored. Holding a pencil in both hands shows that you are paying attention. Sitting at the corner of a conference table can sometimes give you superiority.
The actual language used in English business meetings is detailed below but is not exclusive. Conceding or partially conceding is a good way to negotiate your point of view into being accepted whereas totally disagreeing, or raising your voice is likely to induce hostility and end up with your standpoint being overturned.
As with written communication such as English emails and reports it is important that you organise the structure of your spoken contributions. Remember to prepare for the meeting in advance and have your notes prepared. Don't fall into the trap of reading out a pre-prepared speech, however, or you may bore your fellow participants.
Meetings – Language
Paula?
Function
Language
Starting
Many thanks for coming, shall we start?
Introducing the subject
We need to discuss..
Asking for an opinion
Any views on this? What do you think about..?
Agreeing
I agree. I totally agree!
Disagreeing
I don't agree
Conceding a point
Yes, you are right there.
Partially conceding
I can see your point but...
Making a proposal
I think we should...
Suggesting an alternative
Why don't we..instead?
Making an opinion
In my opinion.
Asking for participation
Would you mind giving us your views on this,
Presenting alternatives
We can either .. or ..
Bringing back the focus of the discussion
We are drifting away from the subject. Can we concentrate on the main points?
Ending
Many thanks for your participation. Its been a productive meeting.

English Business Meetings

Business meetings conducted in English are either formal or informal. The informal variety may involve only a couple of people and take place in the managers, or your own, office. For this type there may not be a set time or agenda.

Formal meetings usually involve larger numbers of people and are often held in a conference room. There will be an agenda and minutes (detailed notes) are taken to record what happened in the meeting. The actual language you use is the same, and this article will explain the proper use of these business English language functions.

Business English and your path to career success

The term business English covers a variety of topics. in Hong Kong, however, it is the language used to communicate both internally and externally within an organisation.

Currently it is estimated that there are over 1 billion people learning English right now. 250 million of these are in China! Why is this so? Because English is the "global language" of business, politics, culture and entertainment. Your ability to use English well within the workplace will make or break your career success. And the better your English the more relaxed you will be in your daily working life.

The CEO's of the Fortune 500 companies are all great communicators. They can deliver powerful presentations and sell their ideas to everyone they come into contact with. Here I will ask you one question: How good are you at communicating in English in your business life?

Apart from face to face communication in meetings there are the teleconferences where its even more difficult to understand what is being said because there is no body language. No nods indicating "yes" or smiles to say " I agree with you".

And even worse are the business dinner or drinks after the meeting.... What are you going to say? How are you going to understand what they are saying now that they are using so much slang? And or course the loud music doesn't help you listen more clearly either.... Why is that Scottish accent so difficult to understand? Oh dear......

Being proficient in English will also help you in job interviews and enable you to move ahead in your career, or even change direction.

At a lower level you will be able to get away with communicating in Cantonese (or whatever your native language is) with your colleagues, and the grammar mistakes in your emails will be overlooked. But the more senior you become the more you will have to show your abilities in English. Suddenly you have to deal with the big guys from head office in London. And you wouldn't want your staff to criticise your business emails would you?

The most efficient way to improve your English to with a private one to one native English tutor. But not all "native English tutors" are qualified or experienced so beware. At "HKEnglish.com":http://www.hkenglish.com all our tutors are experienced, qualified native English tutors who will customise your English lessons to ensure that you are meeting your learning objectives.

We provides a range of
Business English Courses

Better Business Writing - Be Concise

Today, writing business emails, letters and reports is taking more and more of our time. And with multiple people in your organisation reading your emails you want to be sure that yours are as correct as possible.

To write effectively not only requires a good knowledge of grammar and a wide vocabulary, but also proper organisation of ideas and an understanding of tone.

The most important thing to realise is that "less is better". With less words your writing will be more easily understood. Being concise is one of the most important ways that you can improve your business writing. Here are some ways to reduce word count.

*Avoid Complicated Words*

One of the most common mistakes is to try and use longer, more complicated words and phrases when you could use a simpler alternative.

For instance:

*Replace "endevour" with "try"

*replace "terminate" with "end"

*Replace "at the present time" with "now"

*Replace "for the purpose of " with "for"


*Avoid Cliches*

Another popular error is the use of cliches. You have probably read these hundreds of times in emails/letters you have received and so copy them into your own writing. Cliches just add extra words to the text but don't add any further meaning.

Consider these:

*Replace "at an early date" with "soon"

*Replace "are in receipt of" with "received"

By using simpler words and phrases you will be certain that your reader will understand your message.

The best way to improve your business English writing is to study with a private English tutor. HKEnglish provides the highest quality one-to-one English tuition in Hong Kong, so
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